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were also hills where they abode. Adepts -in music, they could sing and play the flute and
dance softly with gentle movements of the limbs. The story of the kinnaras nursing a baby
when its parents were away in the woods shows that they were tender-hearted (op. cit. vi,
No. 540, p. 41). That they were treated as no better than weird animals is seen from the way
they were hunted, captured and presented to kings. Their apparel consisted of flowers, their
food of pollen and their cosmetics of flower perfume. They bathed in streams, swung in the
creepers and rested on couches of flowers. These harmless creatures are very different from
the horsefaced or centaur-like kinnaras of Hindu mythology.

       The kinnaras of Hindu mythology are divine minstrels like the gandharvas, excel-
lent masters of music. In emphasising their musical talents the descriptions in Buddhist
literature agree with the Hindu descriptions where their voice is considered the sweetest
and the woman with a delightful voice is kinnarakarHhl, i.e., possessing the voice of
kinnara (Raghuvamsa viii, 64). Kinnaras are believed to be composed of two elements,
horse and man, the head being that of either and the body always of the ~ther (Vish-
nudharmottara iii, 42. 14; Kumarasambhava i, 11). The very name kinnara suggests the
query "kimnara, is it a man?" "Kinnaras are always described as going in pairs, e.g.,
Bana (Kadambari, p. 226)."ยท


       The gandharvas are semi-divine beings ruled b~, one of the lords of the four
quarters. Dhatarattha. They produced nippurisa, i.e., "not human" music and are divine
musicians. They are believed to dwell in the fragrance of fl?wers. The gandharvas are
according to the VidhurapanditaJataka ruled by Sakka (Indra) himself. This is because
Sakka is the suzeran over the caturmahiirajika world presided over by the four guardians
of the quarters of whom Dhataratha, lord of the gandharvas, is one. Among the gandhar-
vas are Matali, the chrioteer of Sakka, Cittasena, Pancasikha and Timbaru. Timbaru is
reminiscent of the Hindu divine sage who plays the ui,!-a. Pancasikha is the husband of
Suriyavaccasa, Timbaru's daughter, 'and constantly waits on Sakka. According to the
Bilarikosiya Jataka Pancasikha was born among the divine beings, like his father Matali
before him, because of his good deeds (iv. No. 450, p. 40). He is the divine minstrel par
excellence. Among the Amaravati sculptures there is one (pI. iv, fig. 22) representing a
naga and a garuda together with a person carrying a vina and thus very like Pancasikha
in Buddhist sculptures from Mathura and elsewhere illustrating the visit of Sakka in
the company of Pancasikha to Buddha in Indaselaguha. Though not in that scene this
figure has been indentified as Pancasikha by Dr. Coomaraswamy (12, p. 253). and though
the identification cannot be taken as certain it seems extremely probable. If he is this
divine distinguished from other gandharvas by his ulna which he played to Buddha before
obtaining his permission for Sakka to visit him. This scene is' oten shown in sculpture,
both Gandhara and indigenous.
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